*Federal research and development spending for defense and space rose from 1953 to 1964, fell from 1965 to 1979, and then rose agsin during the Carter-Reagan military buildup.
*DOD is the largest supporter of research and development in the federal government, accounting for 50 percent of the total. In the 1980’s it was two-thirds of R&D, peaking in 1987.
*DOD money for research is allocated in different categories. Its RDT&E (Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation) has seven categories, each with a numerical code.
Basic Reseach (6.1), Applied Research (6.2), Advanced Technology Development (6.3), Demonstration and Validation (6.4), Engineering and Manufacturing Development (6.5), Management Support (6.6), and Operational Systems Development (6.7). 6.1, 6.2, and 6.3 are grouped together as Science and Technology (S&T), which contribute to broad knowledge bases with potential for practical uses, civilian and military. The 6.4 and higher categories “are focused on the development and testing of specific weapons systems with narrow military applicability.”
*DOD funds a little over 10 percent of all basic and applied research (6.1 and 6.2) but is a key funder for many disciplines. Nearly all DOD funding for R&D at colleges and universities are from the S&T accounts, 6.1 to 6.3. It supports 40 percent of federal research in computer science, 33 percent of all engineering, 15 percent of mathematics, and 20 percent of oceanography. DOD funds a substantial portion of many engineering subdisciplines. It funds over 70 percent of electrical engineering, over 60 percent of mechanical engineering, nearly 50 percent of metallurgy, and 25 percent of astronautical engineering. The Navy underwrites at least 50 percent of ocean sciences investment, on and off campus. John Hamre of the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington DC said government money, especially defense funding, is the “oxygen source for engineering.” It also funds 9 percent of environmental sciences, 2 percent of psychology, and 8 percent of “other”, which are classified.
*DOD is the third largest federal sponsor of R&D at universities and colleges, behind the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Over half of DOD support for academic R&D is basic research (6.1), a quarter applied reserach (6.2), a tenth is development (6.3) and the remaining 12 percent is 6.4 and higher. In 1999 federal R&D spending was $15 billion, with $1.3 billion coming from the Pentagon.
*the 2000 Pentagon budget for science was $8.7 billion, up 11 percent from 1999. Of that $1.8 billion was for basic research (6.1), up 5.8 percent from 1999.
*The 2001 Pentagon budget, before 9/11, was $1.33 billion for basic research and $3.7 billion in applied research.
*In 2002 an emphasis was made on developing military capabilities for the 21st century. It put in a $2.6 billion RDT&E initiative for “leap-ahead” technologies, $8.8 billion for S&T. It funded “Information and Space Capabilities; Missile Defense; Strategic Forces and Precision Strike; and Future Threat Initiatives.
*The budget for 2003 included a section “Investing in the technology of 21st century warfare.” It said “the U.S. is likely to face unconventional enemies that will be defeated with intelligence, precision weapons and agile forces,” and included investment to improve intelligence-gathering and $9.9 billion for S&T programs, along with $1 billion in unmanned vehicles from surveillance planes to underwater systems.
*The military has a University Research Initiative, which we talked about before. One part of it is the Multidisciplinary Research program (MURI). It is designed to build and support research teams on a university which intersect with more than one traditional science and engineering discipline. It is set up for military programs. Millions of funding go through this program.
“DOD Basic Research Rises 13 Percent; Congress Allocates $9.4 Billion for S&T.” AAAS – January 4, 2001 – Final.
Kouzumi, Kei. “R&D in the FY 2001 Department of Defense Budget.” AAAS Report XXV: Research & Development FY 2001. http://www.aaas.org/spp/dspp/rd/xxv/chap8.htm (accessed March 18, 2002)
“Professor in the Pentagon.” Virginia Engineering. Spring 1995. http://www.cs.virginia.edu/misc/news-pentagont.htm (Accessed March 18, 2002)
“Congress Ups Pentagon Spending.” PRISM Online. March 2000. http://www.asee.org/prism/march00/briefings.cfm (accessed February 26, 2002)
“Department of Defense Amended Budget for FY 2002.” http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Jun2001/b06272001_bt287-01.htm (accessed March 7, 2002).
“2003 Defense Budget is Investment in Transformation.” Press release, February 4, 2002.